The Neurophysiology of Feng Shui

The Neurophysiology of Feng Shui
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/31)

The Neurophysiology of Feng Shui

The Triune Brain, by Janet Cunningham

There is not one brain, but three, each physiologically and chemically different from the others:

Neocortex – divided into left and right hemispheres and is the most recently evolved brain.

Left Hemisphere – considered the dominant one by neuroscientists because it is the center of language. It is the seat of rational, analytical and sequential intellectual processes. Right hemisphere – perceives in wholes and can signal the limbic system, such as when you experience a “gut reaction” or other physical sensation. It is the center of random, nonsequential intellectual processes, such as intuitive, visual, and associational. The right and left hemispheres communicate directly though the corpus callosum, a mass of more than 200 million nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres. The two hemispheres must work together so you can verify your intuitive perceptions.

Limbic System – the most chemically active and chemically volatile of the three brains, evolving after the reptilian brain. The limbic system is the center of emotional activity and sensory-based emotional information, including senses of taste and smell, pleasure and pain.

Reptilian Brain – known as the primal brain, in evolutionary terms, absorbs information in the form of energy that flows up the spinal column and through the pores. Instincts of comfort or discomfort, territory or safety, moving toward or away from things, patterns, habits and routines connect to the reptilian brain.

All three brains and all intelligences are working simultaneously all the time…

Editor’s Comments:

In a previous article I discussed the Feng Shui of the standard office cubicle. I pointed out how cubicles need not be as dehumanizing as cartoonist/social satirist Scott Adams makes them out to be, with two non-negotiable provisos. One: a cubicle occupant must never be forced to sit outside his cubicle. Two: a cubicle occupant must never be forced to sit with his back to the opening of the cubicle.

I pointed out how properly designed cubicles ensured that occupants could see someone approaching them. I did not elaborate on why this was so essential, on the assumption that most design professionals understood why. In case anyone remains in doubt, permit me to clarify. It is essential that human beings be able to see when someone is approaching because man’s animal nature needs to feel comfortable and safe.

The probability that in any particular office some disgruntled fellow employee is suddenly going to “go postal” and gun you down with an AK-47 is, statistically speaking, extremely low. The Left Hemisphere of the Neocortex assesses risks in the surrounding environment according to such “rational” critera.

But the Neocortex constitutes only one-third of the human brain, and the Left Hemisphere only half of that. The Limbic System and Reptilian Brain constitute the other two-thirds, and “When the reptilian brain does not feel comfortable and safe, it sends distress signals up through the top two brains, which can make it impossible to concentrate on the work at hand.” [emphasis added]

As Cunningham notes, “Unlike the left neocortex, which is concerned with external facts, the limbic brain gives you information about your internal world. If you ignore internal dialogue [by overriding it] with the voice of reason, you are allowing the left brain to impose its linear perspective… not letting yourself benefit from information that your limbic brain is giving you is a self-censoring process. And… your immune system is connected to your limbic brain!”

Besides, the Limbic System and Reptilian Brain are sometimes right on the money!

Number of Workplace Murders on the Rise over Last Decade
by J.M. Lawrence
Wednesday, December 27, 2000
http://civil.nih.gov/news/othr12272000.html
About 1,000 people are murdered at work every year – an average of 20 homicides each week, according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Modern “rationalists” may object to this perspective as “subjectivist,” even “atavistic,” but they would be dead wrong. Objective reality cannot be limited to what is “out there,” because objective reality includes everything “in here” as well. Human physiology is real, but so is human psychology. Anyone who dismisses human psychology as “less real” than human physiology is not being scientific or objective, but is merely an unwitting victim of Reductive Materialism.

Feng Shui principles and their western environmental design equivalents were not invented, but discovered. They are not dictated by human beings, but by human nature, and will remain valid as long as human nature remains essentially unchanged. Modern “rationalists” ignore this profound wisdom at their own risk.

— Bevin Chu

Explanation: The Triune Brain
Illustration(s): The Triune Brain
Author: Janet Cunningham
Affiliation: http://www.janetcunningham.com/a-msbconn.html
Source: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect
Publication Date: 2003
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect

Feng Shui and Frank Lloyd Wright, Hemicycle Designs

Feng Shui and Frank Lloyd Wright, Hemicycle Designs
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/24)


Feng Shui and Frank Lloyd Wright, Hemicycle Designs

According to Cate Bramble…

Consider the hemicycle designs that Wright innovated. A hemicycle is not inherently good Feng Shui. Can anyone imagine a follower of the Black Sect Buddhist Church or Pyramid School trying to place their cookie-cutter baguas over a hemicycle? Sure, traditional Feng Shui practitioners have been educated on strategies for dealing with these designs, but hemicycles don’t exactly lend themselves to those uniquely American “McBagua” schools. I would suggest that many people who think Frank Lloyd Wright was some kind of Feng Shui savant have seen the Guggenheim or a picture of Fallingwater, but generally don’t look much further.

Editor’s Comments:

This is strawman rhetoric at its amateurish worst. The authoress first makes exaggerated claims about Wright and Feng Shui that no one would ever believe, then mocks them as exaggerated claims no one would ever believe. I’m not even going to bother with her grammatical errors. No one is claiming that Frank Lloyd Wright was “some kind of Feng Shui savant” — merely that Wright had a close affinity with the Daoist philosophy that informs Feng Shui. One: Wright was spiritually attuned to Feng Shui even though he did not formally practice Feng Shui. Two: Traditional Chinese architectural forms and details show up in Wright’s work repeatedly. Wright’s “Prairie Houses” in particular, reveal an unmistakable family resemblance to traditional Chinese buildings. Re: Wright’s “hemicycles.” The authoress merely displays her ignorance. She assumes traditional Feng Shui rules out the possibility of circular building plans. But that was never the case. True, most Chinese buildings consciously designed to comply with Feng Shui happen to be orthogonal, rectilinear. But this was never a hard and fast rule. See Illustration: Traditional Hakka Minority Circular Dwellings in Fujian. Let me be perfectly clear. No one is saying Wright copied Hakka dwellings when he designed his “solar hemicycle” designs, merely that Feng Shui has never precluded circular buildings per se. The principles of Feng Shui, despite the claims of some practitioners, are contextual, not absolute. Feng Shui requires discrimation and judgment because Feng Shui is an art, not a science. Who exactly has trouble reconciling herself to the fact that “cookie cutter” application of Feng Shui principles won’t fly? Nobody except Bramble.

— Bevin Chu

Explanation: Feng Shui and Frank Lloyd Wright, Hemicycle Designs
Illustration(s): Frank Lloyd Wright’s Jacobs House II, Traditional Hakka Minority Circular Dwellings in Fujian
Author: Jackie Craven
Affiliation: About.com
Source: http://architecture.about.com/library/blfeng-hemi.htm
Publication Date: None
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect

Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? NO!

Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? NO!
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/21)

Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? NO!

The master went beyond the ancient Eastern philosophies, say some critics.

Did Frank Lloyd Wright practice “good feng shui”? Do his homes suggest harmony with nature and a positive flow of energy (chi)?

Cate Bramble, a certified traditional feng shui consultant, says NO. Here’s why.

According to Cate Bramble…

I accept that Frank Lloyd Wright was an artist, interior and industrial designer, an academic, an architect, and an innovator. What I do not accept is any attempt by poorly-educated revisionists to reverse-engineer Wright’s “organic architecture” into some kind of Feng Shui mold.

Wright pioneered living rooms (over parlors), carports (in an age moving from buggies to cars), and open floor plans (the ubiquitous design of post-1980 tract homes). But none of those innovations automatically generate good Feng Shui, and are not inherently imbued with Feng Shui principles. Nor has Wright’s organic architecture gracefully weathered the brutal seasons in southern California (wildfire, earthquake, El Nino, financial crisis).

In 1937 Wright coined architecture as “that great living creative spirit which from generation to generation, from age to age, proceeds, persists, creates, according to the nature of man, and his circumstances.” His creative genius enabled him to go way beyond the traditional in ways contrary to the ideals and principles of Feng Shui.

Editor’s Comments:

One is tempted to simply ignore the above comments, for the reason that the author does a superb job of discrediting herself. If you have the patience, reread her remarks. She hasn’t bothered to sort out in her own mind what facts support what claims. As a result she unwittingly ends up undermining her own claims. I would be remiss however if I allowed her unfair ad hominem attack on the Feng Shui consultant in the previous article to pass without comment:

“What I do not accept,” she writes, “is any attempt by poorly-educated revisionists to reverse-engineer Wright’s “organic architecture” into some kind of Feng Shui mold.”

We live in an era in which anyone can post anything, and anyone can claim to be anybody on the Internet — and does. According to what criterion did this presumably highly-educated “certified traditional feng shui consultant,” base her conclusion that the gentleman in the previous article was “poorly-educated?” Can you find anything in his remarks to justify her apoplexy? I can’t. Was he disrepectful toward Frank Lloyd Wright? Hardly — he bubbled over with praise for the Great Master. So just exactly what provoked her out of the blue personal attack? If it wasn’t something he said, perhaps it was merely who he was?

As I noted in my previous column, it is hard to avoid the disquieting suspicion that a certain “cultural chauvinism,” shall we call it, lies at the heart of this persistent unwillingness to give creative credit where credit is due. I’m sure even “poorly-educated revisionists” know what I’m talking about.

— Bevin Chu

Explanation: Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? NO!
Illustration(s): Frank Lloyd Wright’s Jacobs House II, Traditional Hakka Minority Circular Dwellings in Fujian
Author: Jackie Craven
Affiliation: About.com
Source: http://architecture.about.com/library/weekly/aa110899.htm
Publication Date: None
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect

Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? YES!

Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? YES!
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/20)

Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? YES!

Believers say that the master’s buildings suggest feng shui ideas.

Frank Lloyd Wright = the American master who idealized “organic architecture”

Feng Shui = the Ancient Eastern art of placement

Feng shui (pronounced FUNG SHWAY) isn’t an obscure ancient art any more. It’s not even a wacky New Age fad. Ever since Donald Trump called upon feng shui consultants, even the most traditional Westerners are buying into the idea that the design of buildings can affect our fates.

The words feng shui mean wind/water. Feng shui designers believe that buildings should allow for a positive flow of energy (or chi). To achieve this, some feng shui practitioners use a compass and other tools to make precise measurements of walls, windows, and doors. Some practitioners follow more general guidelines. Some rely mainly on intuition.

American architect Frank Lloyd Wright lived long before feng shui became trendy in the United States. But fans often say that his buildings suggest feng shui ideas.

Let’s look at what one feng shui consultant, Master Xu Weili, has to say about the classic Frank Lloyd Wright home, Fallingwater.

“FLW’s genius flowed from his innate understanding of Taoist principles…” –Master Xu Weili, Windhorse Feng Shui Consultants

According to Xu Weili….

With Fallingwater, Frank Lloyd Wright accomplished the traditional Taoist objectives of meeting wind with water, or what the Chinese describe as feng shui.

Simply said, feng shui means living in balance with nature. Fallingwater represents this ideal. For the first time, an American architect understood Chinese geomancy, and put this to work in his own way. Residents of Fallingwater could dip their toes in the waters, or breath in the clean air of a pure Pennsylvania forest. The cantilevered terraces of Fallingwater recall the great homes of Egypt and Babylon, with secret waters flowing, and secret gardens flowering.

Small wonder that the original family of Fallingwater was blessed with financial offerings.

Editor’s Comments:

Frank Lloyd Wright was America’s greatest architect. One is tempted to stick one’s neck out and claim that Frank Lloyd Wright was the greatest architect who ever lived, bar none. Wright certainly made that claim about himself often enough. It might have been an exaggeration, but not by much. He referred to his attitude as “honest arrogance” which he said was to be preferred to “servile humility”. Whether those are the only two choices open to an artist is questionable. What is not questionable is Wright’s accomplishments. Wright’s lifetime achievements, equal to that of a dozen of his peers, were staggering, and made even more staggering due to the fact that he remained so prolific so late into his life.

But how many architectural historians in the West appreciate the enormous artistic debt this great American genius owed to traditional Chinese architecture? I for one have long held that Frank Lloyd Wright owed far more to Chinese architectural tradition than has been properly acknowledged. Frank Lloyd Wright openly professed a profound admiration for the ancient Chinese philospher Laozi, whose Dao De Jing he quoted repeatedly, to the blinking incomprehension of many linear-minded western academics. Laozi was a Daoist, and Feng Shui is a Daoist art form. Wright routinely linked his decidedly un-Western understanding of “empty space as a positive attribute” to this Chinese mystical philosophy. Wright did not practice Feng Shui formally, but he did practice it in spirit, and with knowledge aforethought of Daoist precepts.

It is hard to avoid the uncomfortable feeling that a certain “cultural chauvinism” lies at the core of this persistent failure to and to set the historical record straight by acknowledging Frank Lloyd Wright’s “Chinese Connection”. One can only hope this flagrant injustice will eventually be remedied sometime in the future.

— Bevin Chu

Post Script: Prominent architectural critics such as Vincent Scully have of course noted the “Japanese Connection”. But neither Scully nor any other western architectural historian or critic I know of has ever followed up by tracing Wright’s stylistic borrowings back to their intellectual and artistic source — China. Do they really not understand that traditional Japanese architecture is perhaps 80% Chinese? (The remaining 20% is indigenous Japanese variations on Chinese archetypes.)

In certain respects Japan bears a relationship to China akin to the relationship Rome bore to Greece. Just as much of Roman culture was borrowed wholesale from Greece, so much of Japanese culture was borrowed wholesale from China, and indirectly from China through Korea. Just as the Greek goddess Aphrodite became the Roman goddess Venus, so Chinese Buddhism, aka Tsan, became the Japanese Zen. Most of this occurred during the Tang Dynasty (roughly 600 to 900 AD) when Japanese envoys made wave after wave of pilgrimages to China, and with the official permission of the Chinese Imperial Court, copied every aspect of Chinese civilization and carted it back to Japan. Even today, a millennium and a half later, perhaps half of the written Japanese language is still recognizable by Chinese who speak no Japanese.

None of this is intended to diminish the accomplishments of great Japanese architects, but merely to set the historical record straight. Modern Japanese architecture is superior to modern Chinese architecture, on the whole. Among the living architects I respect the most is Tadao Ando, perhaps Japan’s finest architectural designer. Conversely much of the new architecture on China’s eastern seaboard is shlock. It saddens me to have to acknowledge this, especially as some of it was produced by Chinese architects of my personal acquaintance. China has a lot of catching up to do.

Explanation: Frank Lloyd Wright and Feng Shui? YES!
IIllustration: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water
Author: Jackie Craven
Affiliation: About.com
Source: http://architecture.about.com/library/weekly/aa110199.htm
Publication Date: None
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect

Nonergonomic! Bad Feng Shui

Nonergonomic! Bad Feng Shui
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/19)

Bad Feng Shui

Feng Shui, the ancient Chinese philosophy of spatial design, aspires to create harmony in your home. What happens when designers deliberately break the rules? The set for the splash TV series Big Brother is a lesson in bad feng shui.

When it aired in Europe and Great Britain, the television show Big Brother became the world’s most widely viewed docudrama — a chance for voyeurs to watch real people living inside a camera-filled house during prime time, five nights a week. Now, the Big Brother craze has spread to the United States, bringing with it a new way of thinking about home design.

The concept for the Big Brother show is Orwellian: Ten strangers spend three months under 24-hour surveillance in a bare-basics, 1,800 square foot house. There are two bedrooms furnished with six twin beds and two bunk beds. The bathroom has one toilet, one shower, a washboard and a washtub. The house is equipped with twenty-eight cameras, sixty microphones and sixty-nine camera windows and two-way mirrors. Nine windows face the yard.

These factors alone are enough to make most people uneasy. But, to add to the general unrest, designers who created the house for the American version of the show drew upon feng shui ideas. Feng shui is an ancient Chinese philosophy of spatial design. Follow the rules, and you will have harmony in your home, say feng shui believers. Break the rules, and…. Well, just look inside the Big Brother house to see the impact of disharmonious design.

For the full article see:
http://architecture.about.com/library/weekly/aa073100a.htm

Editor’s Comments:

It is interesting to note that,

“One of the most important, and most turbulent, spaces in the Big Brother house is the Red Room. Here the occupants communicate with Big Brother, seek counsel from a doctor or psychologist, or speak privately with the TV producers. Designers drew upon feng shui principles to create dissonance… the small room has only one chair. Visitors must sit with their backs to the door, facing a mirror, where they are certain to feel vulnerable.” (Emphasis added)

http://www.cbs.com/primetime/bigbrother3/house/index.shtml

Diabolical? Absolutely. After all, this is the room where the contestants “seek counsel from a doctor or psychologist” [ ! ] But fascinating as that is, it is not what amazes me. What amazes me about this news report is how deeply awareness and acceptance of Feng Shui has penetrated the “rationalistic” West. We have arrived at a point where art directors and set designers for a “Reality TV” program in England, the Home of the Industrial Revolution, and America, the most technologically advanced nation in the world, have internalized esoteric Chinese mystical precepts as if they were Newtonian Physics, and are routinely, matter of factly applying them to 21st century electronic media programming. Welcome to the Global Electronic Village.

— Bevin Chu

Explanation: Bad Feng Shui
Illustration: None
Author: Jackie Craven
Affiliation: About.com
Source: http://architecture.about.com/library/weekly/aa073100a.htm
Publication Date: None
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect

Nonergonomic! Feng Shui For Business

Nonergonomic! Feng Shui For Business
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/18)

Feng Shui For Business

Desk Position

When sitting at your workstation it is strongly recommended that you do not have your back to a door, corridor or passageway, unless absolutely necessary. This is because a significant percentage of your conscious, and particularly your subconscious, awareness will be focused on what is going on behind you and you will be less able to concentrate on the tasks in hand. As far as business is concerned, staff will be less efficient/productive in such positions. In a cellular office it is usually quite simple to space-plan furniture so that the occupant has ‘command of the room’.

By this I mean that the person has a good view of the door and through any windows, without having to turn around. Clearly, in an open-plan office environment it is almost inevitable that some personnel will end up with their back to a corridor. The best and simplest short-term remedy is to position a small mirror in front of you (perhaps on the edge of your PC monitor) so that you can easily see behind you. The small, circular, convex car wing mirrors are ideal as they show a wide expanse from a discreet surface area.

Editor’s Comments:

Are you a Feng Shui skeptic? Do you look upon Feng Shui as “primitive superstition ill-befitting rational, progressive intellectuals in the 21st century?” Listen to what the author has to say:

Companies are viewing the office environment as a critical factor that affects staff morale, motivation and loyalty. Feng shui is becoming accepted as a valid method of bringing about real change in people’s lives, with large prestigious corporations such as BUPA, Orange Telecom, Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, British Airways and Virgin Airlines, employing feng shui consultants on a regular basis. What do these companies have in common? They are all extremely successful, very profitable and people-orientated. With salaries accounting for the largest overhead of many companies, these ‘blue chips’ are keen to ensure that their employees are happy and motivated in the work place, in order that they may maximise performance. Training new people and integrating them into company culture is an expensive and time-consuming business; hence by reducing staff, turnover companies are taking a significant step closer to maximising their profits. Increasingly, companies are viewing the office environment as a critical factor affecting staff morale, motivation and loyalty. Many companies, such as those mentioned above, are discovering that feng shui provides a cost-effective means of significantly improving the quality of their working environment and so ultimately enhances their success in the marketplace.

During the decade of the Nineties, the ancient Chinese art of Feng Shui gained an unexpected but welcome currency in the technologically advanced, rationalistically oriented nations of Europe and America — the countries anthropologist Edward T. Hall referred to as “low context” societies. American TV sit-coms now feature episodes in which famous Hollywood actors engage in Feng Shui one-upsmanship.

But is Feng Shui merely the Flavor of the Month? Is it, god forbid, the Macarena? Let us hope not. Feng Shui is far too important to be adopted and discarded as just another passing fad. Feng Shui, like Accupuncture, like Chinese Herbal Medicine, like Qi Gong, like Chinese Martial Arts, like the I Ching, works. It worked in the past, and will work in the future, for the simple reason that Feng Shui is grounded in a profound understanding of the fundamental nature of the universe we inhabit. It will only stop working when Nature As We Know It stops working as we know it. As westerners begin to appreciate what an invaluable contribution the Chinese art of Feng Shui is to the environmental design profession, it is high time Chinese design professionals re-evaluated their own cultural heritage. It would be sad indeed if at the same time Westerners were acquiring a newfound respect for All Things Chinese, Chinese themselves were busy denigrating and minimizing their own historical legacy.

— Bevin Chu

Explanation: Feng Shui For Business
Illustration: None
Author: Robert Gray
Affiliation: Feng Shui Society
Source: http://www.creativefengshui.co.uk/aboutus/body_aboutus.html
Publication Date: 2003
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect

Nonergonomic! The Cubicle from Hell

Nonergonomic! The Cubicle from Hell
[人因工程 ]
(2003/03/17)



The Cubicle from Hell

The author/editor has worked in a number of architectural firms over the years, and he has noticed a discouraging anomaly. In a textbook case of “The cobbler’s children have no shoes”, design firms whose mission is “Better Living Through Design” often fail to provide a humane working environment for their own employees. Usually those neglected are employees on the lowest levels of the organizational hierarchy. (This is not always the case however. Below is an atypical instance in which middle managers have wound up with work spaces inferior to those below them.) See Illustrations: Bad Cubicle and So-So Cubicle

Consider the standard office cubicle. Scott Adams, creator of the comic strip “Dilbert,” has an extremely low opinion of cubicles in general.

“If you put somebody in a cubicle,” says Adams, “you cannot expect him to make decisions which are higher quality than cubicle decisions.”

http://www.dilbert.com/comics/dilbert/news_and_history/html/working_in_dilberts_world.html

‘A former cubicle dweller himself, Scott Adams has made Dilbert’s dinky domain a prime symbol of workplace humiliation. There are companies, such as chipmaker Intel, where everybody, even the CEO, works out of a warren. But generally, dispatching someone to one of those pasteboard waffle holes is a public, self-fulfilling prophecy of subpar performance.’

Personally I understand but don’t share Adam’s intense antipathy toward cubicles. Cubicles need not be as dehumanizing as Adams makes out, with the following non-negotiable provisos:

One: A cubicle occupant must never be forced to sit outside the cubicle. The cubicle occupant must sit entirely inside the cubicle. A cubicle containing only a work surface with a chair pushed up against it is flat out unacceptable. No ifs, ands or buts about it. See Illustration: The Cubicle from Hell.

Two: A cubicle occupant must never be forced to sit with his back to the opening of the cubicle. The occupant must sit with either his back to the rear of the cubicle and his face to the cubicle entrance (difficult to achieve), or he must sit with this back to one of the two side walls of the cubicle (easily achieved and quite common). Anything less is flat out unacceptable. Again see: The Cubicle from Hell.

A cubicle occupant must be able to catch anyone approaching his personal space in either his direct vision or at least his peripheral vision. What makes the Bad Cubicle unacceptable (See Illustration: Bad Cubicle) is that it amounts to half a cubicle. Half a cubicle is like a room with a missing wall. It is especially objectionable if the missing wall is to one’s back.

Even more objectionable are what the article refers to as

‘other so-called alternative office strategies like Hoteling (spaces are divvied out daily, first come, first served), Shared Space (employees confined like two-to-a-cell prisoners) and Free-Address (workers share large, open, hivelike spaces). The newest horror among the boxed set is “densification,” when employers literally close in the walls on the workers to save floor space. “It’s part of a constant nickel-and-diming of the employee,” says Adams. “I want you to work another hour and make the cubicle two feet smaller.”‘

— Bevin Chu

Explanation: The Cubicle from Hell
IIllustration: Nonergonomic! The Cubicle from Hell
Author: Bevin Chu
Affiliation: CETRA Design Information Section
Source: http://www.philly.com/mld/philly/business/4814052.htm
Publication Date: 2003
Original Language: English
Editor: Bevin Chu, Registered Architect